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). In any event, if analysis of discretionary sentences were relevant, it would not provide objective support for today’s decision. The clause does not contain a “proportionality principle.” Ewing v. California, 554 U. S. 407 Two justices dissented. of Justice, H. Snyder & M. Sickmund, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report 110–114 (hereinafter 2006 National Report). Members of this Court may disagree with that choice. The parties agree that nearly 2,500 prisoners are presently serving life sentences without the possibility of pa- role for murders they committed before the age of 18. 564 (2005) Family Code Ann. Eighth Amendment. In other words, the two are in different categories. The second requires individualized sentencing in the capital punishment context. See post, at 5–6 (opinion of Roberts, C. Both cases before us illustrate the problem. See ante, at 21–22, n. 10. Noting that “in view of [the] verdict, there’s only one possible punishment,” the judge sentenced Jackson to life without parole. See Ala. Code §12–15–34 (1977). ; see id., at 1006 (Kennedy, J., concurring in part and concurring in judgment). But given all we have said in Roper, Graham, and this decision about children’s diminished culpability and heightened capacity for change, we think appropriate occasions for sentencing juveniles to this harshest possible penalty will be uncommon. In November 1962, the Birmingham Post-Herald ran an editorial on election day castigating the city government and urging readers to vote for a city initiative to establish “mayor-council” government in Birmingham. Indeed, in amending its laws in response to Graham one legislature made especially clear that it does intend juveniles who commit first-degree murder to receive mandatory life without parole. It neglects the circumstances of the homicide offense, including the extent of his participation in the conduct and the way familial and peer pressures may have affected him. The D. A. did so, and the juvenile court agreed to the transfer after a hearing. Because the Court’s cases requiring individualized sentencing in the capital context are wrongly decided, they cannot serve as a valid foundation for the novel rule regarding mandatory life-without-parole sentences for juveniles that the Court announces today. , in which this Court invalidated the death penalty for all juvenile offenders under the age of 18, Jackson filed a state petition for habeas corpus. Eighth Amendment’s prohibition of cruel and un- usual punishment “guarantees individuals the right not to be subjected to excessive sanctions.” Roper, 543 U. S., at 560. 275 (1980) What has changed (or, better yet, “evolved”) is this Court’s ever-expanding line of categorical proportionality cases. 422 (2008) Neither line is consistent with the original understanding of the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause. 10-9646, 10-9647. The But we refused to extend that command to noncapital cases “because of the qualitative difference between death and all other penalties.” Ibid. Rather, Graham dictates a clear rule: The only juveniles who may constitutionally be sentenced to life without parole are those convicted of homicide offenses who “kill or intend to kill.” 560 U. S., at ___ (slip op., at 18). The highest courts of Alabama and Arkansas upheld the sentences. The Report also “observed that the indeterminate-sentencing system had two ‘unjustifi[ed] and ‘shameful’ consequences. But neither Roper nor Graham held that specific procedural rules are required for sentencing juvenile homicide offenders. (Thomas, J., concurring in judgment); see generally Harmelin v. Michigan, The first has adopted categorical bans on sentencing practices based on mismatches between the culpability of a class of offenders and the severity of a penalty. But decency is not the same as leniency. . Jackson simply went along with older boys to rob a video store. In Graham, federal law and the law of 37 States and the District of Columbia permitted a minor to be sentenced to life imprisonment without parole for nonhomicide crimes, but despite this unmistakable evidence of a national consensus, the Court held that the practice violates the See post, at 3–6 (opinion of Roberts, C. Furman first announced the principle that States may not permit sentencers to exercise unguided discretion in imposing the death pen- alty. In this case, there is little doubt about the direction of society’s evolution: For most of the 20th century, American sentencing practices emphasized rehabilitation of the offender and the availability of parole. But where the juvenile neither kills nor intends to kill, both features emphasized in Graham as extenuating apply. 483 U. S. 66 See 2 LaFave, supra, §14.5(c). Atkins, 536 U. S., at 342 (Scalia, J., dissenting) (emphasis deleted); see id., at 313–315 (majority opinion); Roper, 543 U. S., at 564–565; Thompson, 487 U. S., at 826–827 (plurality opinion). Brief for Amnesty International, et al. The Court of Criminal Appeals also affirmed the juvenile court’s denial of Miller’s request for funds to hire his own mental expert for the transfer hearing. Words, the Court is unwilling to say that a sentencer should look at such facts before depriving a ’. Neither overrules nor undermines nor con- flicts with Harmelin argued in tandem with no ). 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